A retrospective study of 2,912 cryptorchid dogs identified 14 breeds with significantly high risk. Among six distinct closely interrelated breed groups (e.g., toy, miniature, and standard poodles), the risk in the smaller breed was always greater than that in the larger relative, suggesting that genetically influenced maldescent could be, in part, related to physical size or the rate of growth of the involved structures. Testicular tumors were diagnosed in 5.7% of the cryptorchid dogs; half had only Sertoli cell tumors, one‐third had only seminomas. The relative risk for Sertoli cell tumor or seminoma was not directly related to a familial risk for cryptorchism. Using the health experience of a control population composed of male dogs with anal sac disease (N = 4,184), there is an estimated relative risk of 9.2 in cryptorchid dogs to develop a testis tumor (95% confidence interval, 5.9–14.3) and 4.2 in dogs with inguinal hernia (95% confidence interval, 1.8–9.5). Considering that the anatomical development of the genital tract, testis descent, and tunic relationships in dog are very similar to that in man, and that the associations of cryptorchism and inguinal hernia with testis neoplasms are also similar, the dog should be an excellent model system to further investigate the causes of human cryptorchism.