Nazi Germany endorsed unimaginable biological atrocities while simultaneously conducting aggressive and effective health-related campaigns against smoking and cancer. These and other apparent contradictions provide excellent case studies that can be used to demonstrate the complex interactions of science, governmental policies, and ethics. The ability of good science to coexist with ethical laxity emphasises the importance of moral vigilance in science.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
• Funding for the Institute for Tobacco Hazards Research came from a grant application written by Gauleiter Fritz Sauckel, the man who organised Germany's forced-labour system. Sauckel, who fought the spread of smoking because he believed that it would weaken German workers, also pres-sured German tobacco manufacturers to convert their facto-ries to non-smoking industries. After the war, Sauckel was convicted at Nuremberg of crimes against humanity and hanged on October 1, 1946.
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