Camphene-Assisted Fabrication of Free-Standing Lithium-Ion Battery Electrode Composites

Jason A. Weeks, Samantha Lauro, James N. Burrow, Han Xiao, Joshua P. Pender, Adrian K. Rylski, Hugh Daigle, Zachariah Page, Christopher J. Ellison, C. Buddie Mullins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Free-standing electrode (FSE) architectures hold the potential to dramatically increase the gravimetric and volumetric energy density of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) by eliminating the parasitic dead weight and volume associated with traditional metal foil current collectors. However, current FSE fabrication methods suffer from insufficient mechanical stability, electrochemical performance, or industrial adoptability. Here, we demonstrate a scalable camphene-assisted fabrication method that allows simultaneous casting and templating of FSEs comprising common LIB materials with a performance superior to their foil-cast counterparts. These porous, lightweight, and robust electrodes simultaneously enable enhanced rate performance by improving the mass and ion transport within the percolating conductive carbon pore network and eliminating current collectors for efficient and stable Li+ storage (>1000 cycles in half-cells) at increased gravimetric and areal energy densities. Compared to conventional foil-cast counterparts, the camphene-derived electrodes exhibit ∼1.5× enhanced gravimetric energy density, increased rate capability, and improved capacity retention in coin-cell configurations. A full cell containing both a free-standing anode and cathode was cycled for over 250 cycles with greater than 80% capacity retention at an areal capacity of 0.73 mA h/cm2. This active-material-agnostic electrode fabrication method holds potential to tailor the morphology of flexible, current-collector-free electrodes, thus enabling LIBs to be optimized for high power or high energy density Li+ storage. Furthermore, this platform provides an electrode fabrication method that is applicable to other electrochemical technologies and advanced manufacturing methods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)45240-45253
Number of pages14
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number40
StatePublished - Oct 12 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Welch Foundation [grant F-1436 (C.B.M.) and F-2007 (Z.P.)], National Science Foundation via a Partnerships for Innovation grant [PFI-1940986 (C.B.M.)], Zsolt Rumy Innovation Chair (C.J.E.), and National Science Foundation via CAREER [grant no. DMR-2045336 (A.K.R. and Z.P.)] for supporting this work. The authors also thank Celgard for generously supplying membrane separators and Solvay for providing FEC.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 American Chemical Society.


  • batteries
  • composites
  • flexibility
  • lithium iron phosphate
  • lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide
  • lithium titanate electrodes
  • lithium-ion


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