Calcium oxalate urolithiasis in juvenile dogs

Alexander Saver, Jody P. Lulich, Samantha Van Buren, Eva Furrow

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: The features of juvenile-onset calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs have not been previously reported.

METHODS: Calcium oxalate urolith submissions to the Minnesota Urolith Center between 2012 and 2016 were analyzed to identify those originating from juvenile (≤2 years, n = 510) or mature (7-9 years, n = 39,093) dogs. Breed, sex, urolith salt type and urolith location were compared between groups. Breeds represented in both groups were also compared with respect to sex, urolith salt type and urolith location.

RESULTS: French (odds ratios [OR] = 14.7, p < 0.001) and English (OR = 14.3, p < 0.001) Bulldogs were overrepresented in juvenile submissions. All juvenile French and English Bulldogs were male. Across all breeds, juvenile dogs were more likely to be male (89%, p < 0.001) than mature dogs (79%). Juvenile dogs were also more likely to form dihydrate stones compared to mature dogs (33% versus 14%, respectively; p < 0.001). Breed differences were discovered in sex, urolith salt type and stone location.

CONCLUSIONS: French and English Bulldogs comprise a greater proportion of juvenile calcium oxalate urolith submissions than expected based on their rarity in mature submissions. Inherited risk factors, particularly X chromosome variants, should be investigated due to the strong breed and sex predispositions identified.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)no
JournalVeterinary Record
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 1 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
information National Institute of Health, Grant/Award Number: ORIP K01; Mentored Research Scientist Development Award, Grant/Award Number: K01-OD019912 The authors acknowledge and thank Lori Koehler and the Minnesota Urolith Center at the University of Minnesota for providing data for this study.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 British Veterinary Association


  • bulldog
  • hyperuricosuria
  • paediatric
  • predispositions
  • urinary stones


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