The accumulation of calcium carbonate (referred to as scale) on the surface of cross-linked polyethylene and polypropylene random copolymer tubes is compared to that on copper. Water with total calcium and carbonate concentration of 3 × 10 -3 M and a pH of approximately 9.1, yielding a supersaturation of 7.8, was pumped through the tubes at a velocity 0.07 m/s for 2.5, 5, and 7.5 h. Flow was laminar with Reynolds numbers of <1000. Sections of the tubes were analyzed at the designated time points to determine the extent of scaling. Results include scanning electron microscope images of the tube surfaces before and after exposure to the supersaturated water and chemical analysis to determine the mass of calcium carbonate per unit surface area. Measured scaling rates of the two polymer tubes are similar to that of copper.
|Number of pages
|Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of the ASME
|Published - May 1 2006