Background: Improvement of proteinuria as a marker for disease activity is associated with a better renal outcome in immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN). Complement is an effector pathway in IgA-mediated kidney injury. Avacopan, a selective C5a receptor inhibitor, has previously shown efficacy in anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of avacopan in patients with IgAN with persistent proteinuria despite a maximally tolerated dose of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockade. The efficacy evaluation was based on the change in proteinuria. Methods: This open-label pilot trial enrolled adult patients with biopsy-proven IgAN, urinary protein:creatinine ratio (UPCR) >1 g/g creatinine and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or >45 mL/min/1.73 m2 if eGFR has not declined >10 mL/min/1.73 m2 over the previous 24 weeks. If the UPCR remained at >1 g/g creatinine after an 8-week run-in period, patients started avacopan 30 mg twice daily. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in the slope of the UPCR from the 8-week run-in period to the slope in the 12-week avacopan dosing period. Results: A total of 10 of 15 screened patients entered the run-in period. Seven patients with a UPCR >1 g/g creatinine received avacopan. Six of seven patients had numerical improvement in the UPCR during the avacopan treatment period, three of whom had a numerical improvement of ∼50% at week 12. At week 24, five of seven patients still showed numerical improvement in the UPCR compared with baseline. The urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1:creatinine ratio decreased numerically 30% by week 8, possibly reflecting the anti-inflammatory activity of avacopan. Avacopan was well tolerated. There was one serious adverse event of unstable angina, which was deemed to be unrelated to avacopan. Conclusions: This short-term pilot study showed an improvement in the slope of the UPCR, with ∼50% improvement in three of seven patients with IgAN. Longer avacopan treatment duration may be indicated for maximal benefit.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the ERA.
- C5a receptor
- C5a receptor inhibitor
- IgA nephropathy
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article