Opiate administration increases short-term free feeding in satiated rats. The feeding effects of the mixed opioid receptor agonist/antagonist buprenorphine were examined in both free-feeding and operant chamber paradigms. Buprenorphine (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) produced significant increases in short-term free feeding (i.e., 4 h), an effect enhanced by repeated administration. Buprenorphine's effects on operant responding were examined in satiated rats using a fixed ratio (FR) 80 (initial pellet) FR 3 (subsequent pellets) reinforcement schedule. Buprenorphine (0.03-0.3 mg/kg) decreased latency to begin responding for food and increased total number of pellets consumed in a 1-h session. Increases in food intake relative to control were caused by continued responding for food as sessions progressed. Naloxone suppressed both the free-feeding and operant-contingent intake induced by buprenorphine. Thus, buprenorphine increases both freely available and lever-press contingent food intake.