Cooling, nucleation, and phase growth are ubiquitous processes in nature. Effective control of nucleation and phase growth is of significance to yield refined microstructures with enhanced performance for materials. Recent studies reveal that ultrafine grained (UFG)/nanocrystalline metals exhibit extraordinary properties. However, conventional microstructure refinement methods, such as fast cooling and inoculation, have reached certain fundamental limits. It has been considered impossible to fabricate bulk UFG/nanocrystalline metals via slow cooling. Here, we report a new discovery that nanoparticles can refine metal grains to ultrafine/nanoscale by instilling a continuous nucleation and growth control mechanism during slow cooling. The bulk UFG/nanocrystalline metal with nanoparticles also reveals an unprecedented thermal stability. This method overcomes the grain refinement limits and may be extended to any other processes that involve cooling, nucleation, and phase growth for widespread applications.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank J. Zhao and N. Bodzin at the University of California, Los Angeles, for the help with cooling rate measurements and FIB experiments, respectively. This work was partially supported by the NSF (CMMI 1562543) and the Army Research Office (W911NF-14-1-0644). Work at the Molecular Foundry was supported by the Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract no. DE-AC02-05CH11231.