BTI-induced aging under random stress waveforms: Modeling, simulation and silicon validation

Ketul Sutaria, Athul Ramkumar, Rongjun Zhu, Renju Rajveev, Yao Ma, Yu Cao

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

17 Scopus citations


The BTI effect, which consists of both stress and recovery phases, poses a unique challenge to long-term aging prediction, because the degradation rate strongly depends on the stress pattern. Previous approaches usually resort to an average, constant stress waveform to simplify the situation. They are efficient, but fail to capture the reality, especially under dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) or in ana-log/mixed signal designs where the stress waveform is much more random. This paper presents a suite of solutions that enable aging simulation under all possible stress conditions. Key contributions include: (1) Compact modeling of BTI when the stress voltage is varying. The results to both reaction-diffusion (RD) and trap-ping/detrapping (TD) mechanisms are derived. (2) Efficient simula-tion under DVS, leveraging the new BTI models; (3) Silicon vali-dation at 45nm and 65nm, at both device and circuit levels. As the results illustrate, it is necessary to combine both RD and TD mech-anisms to accurately predict aging under changing stress voltages. Our proposed work provides a general and comprehensive solution to aging analysis under random stress patterns.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationDAC 2014 - 51st Design Automation Conference, Conference Proceedings
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
ISBN (Print)9781479930173
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes
Event51st Annual Design Automation Conference, DAC 2014 - San Francisco, CA, United States
Duration: Jun 2 2014Jun 5 2014

Publication series

NameProceedings - Design Automation Conference
ISSN (Print)0738-100X


Other51st Annual Design Automation Conference, DAC 2014
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Francisco, CA


  • Bias Temperature In-stability
  • DVS
  • Random Stress Waveform
  • Reliability Prediction


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