Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with high mortality. We sought to identify biological pathways in ARDS that differentiate survivors from non-survivors. We studied bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from 36 patients with ARDS (20 survivors, 16 non-survivors). Each sample, obtained within seven days of ARDS onset, was depleted of high abundance proteins and labeled for iTRAQ LC-MS/MS separately. Protein identification and relative quantification was performed employing a target-decoy strategy. A variance weighted t-test was used to identify differential expression. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis was used to determine the canonical pathways that differentiated survivors from non-survivors. We identified 1115 high confidence proteins in the BALF out of which 142 were differentially expressed between survivors and non-survivors. These proteins mapped to multiple pathways distinguishing survivors from non-survivors, including several implicated in lung injury and repair such as coagulation/thrombosis, acute phase response signaling and complement activation. We also identified proteins assigned to fibrosis and ones involved in detoxification of lipid peroxide-mediated oxidative stress to be different in survivors and non-survivors. These results support our previous findings demonstrating early differences in the BALF protein expression in ARDS survivors vs. non-survivors, including proteins that counter oxidative stress and canonical pathways associated with fibrosis.