In the United States, anthracnose fruit and crown rots of strawberry, incited by the fungal species Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides, were initially considered 'southeastern' diseases. These diseases are becoming significant problems in other strawberry production regions in the eastern United States. The rapid shift to the annual plasticulture production system in parts of the eastern U.S. is thought to play an integral part in the increased significance of anthracnose throughout North America. Breeding for genetic-based resistance to the disease is considered to be one of the primary means for reducing economic loses due to anthracnose outbreaks. Studies in the eastern U.S. indicate that resistance to strawberry anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum acutatum appears to be quantitative in nature. A greenhouse screening procedure has been effective in identifying resistant genotypes in seedling progenies, with over 32,000 resistant strawberry seedlings identified between 1998 and 1999.