Breakfast Is Brain Food? The Effect on Grade Point Average of a Rural Group Randomized Program to Promote School Breakfast

Mary O. Hearst, Fanny Jimbo-Llapa, Katherine Grannon, Qi Wang, Marilyn S. Nanney, Caitlin E Caspi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Adolescents frequently miss breakfast which may impact cognitive, academic, and health outcomes. This analysis describes the effect of a trial to assess school level changes to increase breakfast consumption on grade point average (GPA). METHODS: Sixteen rural Minnesota high schools were randomized to a policy and environmental change intervention or delayed intervention (control) group. Baseline screening identified, randomly selected and enrolled 9th and 10th grade students who eat breakfast ≤3 times per school week for assessment. Mean unweighted GPA was provided by 13 schools for 636 students. Student-level and administrative data were used for sociodemographic and free or reduced-price meals (FRPM). Linear mixed models and latent class analysis (LCA) were used to assess change in GPA. RESULTS: Students were 54% female, 76% white, and 34% received FRPM. Unweighted cumulative GPA mean = 2.82 (0.78) at baseline. There was no significant intervention effect on GPA postintervention or 1-year follow-up. LCA revealed two classes: “higher” (N = 495) and “lower” (N = 141) resource. There was an intervention effect among low-resource students from baseline to 1-year post only among the control condition (delayed intervention). CONCLUSIONS: In combination with the full study results, increasing breakfast consumption may have an impact particularly for low resource students.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)715-721
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of School Health
Volume89
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Breakfast
brain
Students
food
Food
Brain
school
Group
student
meals
Meals
resources
Environmental Policy
Linear Models
school grade
adolescent
Control Groups
Health
Resources
health

Keywords

  • adolescent health
  • breakfast skipping
  • nutrition and diet
  • school health policy
  • school health research

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article

Cite this

Breakfast Is Brain Food? The Effect on Grade Point Average of a Rural Group Randomized Program to Promote School Breakfast. / Hearst, Mary O.; Jimbo-Llapa, Fanny; Grannon, Katherine; Wang, Qi; Nanney, Marilyn S.; Caspi, Caitlin E.

In: Journal of School Health, Vol. 89, No. 9, 01.01.2019, p. 715-721.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hearst, Mary O. ; Jimbo-Llapa, Fanny ; Grannon, Katherine ; Wang, Qi ; Nanney, Marilyn S. ; Caspi, Caitlin E. / Breakfast Is Brain Food? The Effect on Grade Point Average of a Rural Group Randomized Program to Promote School Breakfast. In: Journal of School Health. 2019 ; Vol. 89, No. 9. pp. 715-721.
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