Brain isoprenoids farnesyl pyrophosphate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate are increased in aged mice

Gero P. Hooff, W. Gibson Wood, Ji Hyun Kim, Urule Igbavboa, Wei Yi Ong, Walter E. Muller, Gunter P. Eckert

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24 Scopus citations


The mevalonate/isoprenoids/cholesterol pathway has a fundamental role in the brain. Increasing age could be associated with specific changes in mevalonate downstream products. Other than age differences in brain cholesterol and dolichol levels, there has been little if any evidence on the short-chain isoprenoids farnesylpyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranylpyrophosphate (GGPP), as well as downstream lipid products. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether brain levels of FPP, GGPP and sterol precursors and metabolites would be altered in aged mice (23 months) as compared to middle-aged mice (12 months) and young mice (3 months). FPP and GGPP levels were found to be significantly higher in brain homogenates of 23-months-old mice. The ratio of FPP to GGPP did not differ among the three age groups suggesting that increasing age does not alter the relative distribution of the two isoprenoids. Gene expression of FPP synthase and GGPP synthase did not differ among the three age groups. Gene expression of HMG-CoA reductase was significantly increased with age but in contrast gene expression of squalene synthase was reduced with increasing age. Levels of squalene, lanosterol and lathosterol did not differ among the three age groups. Desmosterol and 7-dehydroxycholesterol, which are direct precursors in the final step of cholesterol biosynthesis were significantly lower in brains of aged mice. Levels of cholesterol and its metabolites 24S- and 25Shydroxycholesterol were similar in all three age groups. Our novel findings on increased FPP and GGPP levels in brains of aged mice may impact on protein prenylation and contribute to neuronal dysfunction observed in aging and certain neurodegenerative diseases.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)179-185
Number of pages7
JournalMolecular neurobiology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Aug 2012

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgments This work was supported in part by grants from the Alzheimer Forschung Initiative e.V. (AFI no. 08823 to G.P.E.), NIH grants AG-23524 and AG-18357, and the Department of Veterans Affairs.


  • Ageing
  • Alzheimer
  • Brain
  • Cholesterol
  • Isoprenoids
  • Mevalonate pathway


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