A boundary element method-based cortical potential imaging technique has been developed to directly link the scalp potentials with the cortical potentials with the aid of magnetic resonance images of the subjects. First, computer simulations were conducted to evaluate the new approach in a concentric three-sphere inhomogeneous head model. Second, the corresponding cortical potentials were estimated from the patients' preoperative scalp somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) based on the boundary element models constructed from subjects' magnetic resonance images and compared to the postoperative direct cortical potential recordings in the same patients. Simulation results demonstrated that the cortical potentials can be estimated from the scalp potentials using different scalp electrode configurations and are robust against measurement noise. The cortical imaging analysis of the preoperative scalp SEPs recorded from patients using the present approach showed high consistency in spatial pattern with the postoperative direct cortical potential recordings. Quantitative comparison between the estimated and the directly recorded subdural grid potentials resulted in reasonably high correlation coefficients in cases studied. Amplitude difference between the estimated and the recorded potentials was also observed as indexed by the relative error, and the possible underlying reasons are discussed. The present numerical and experimental results validate the boundary element method-based cortical potential imaging approach and demonstrate the feasibility of the new approach in noninvasive high-resolution imaging of brain electric activities from scalp potential measurement and magnetic resonance images.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank Dr. G. Li and Dr. Y. Wang for useful discussion and Mr. Z. Qiu for assistance in display programming. This work was supported in part by NSF CAREER Award BES-9875344, a grant from the Whitaker Foundation, NIH30094, and a grant from the Brain Research Foundation.
- Boundary element method
- Central sulcus
- Cortical potential imaging
- High-resolution EEG
- Realistic geometry head model