In neutrally stratified shallow water, full-depth Langmuir cells (LCs) can interact with the turbulent benthic boundary layer and, thus, influence bottom wall shear stresses. In this paper the impacts of full-depth LCs on the streamwise and spanwise wall shear stresses are systematically studied using the database obtained from wall-resolved large-eddy simulation of shallow-water Langmuir turbulence. Analyses focus on the instantaneous wall shear stress fluctuations and the joint probability density functions between the stress fluctuations and the LCs parts of the velocity fluctuations, which show that the linear superimposition effect and nonlinear modulation effect of LCs are responsible for the spanwise organized distribution of wall shear stress fluctuations. Compared with the statistics in pure shear-driven turbulence without LCs, the mean square values of wall shear stress fluctuations in shallow-water Langmuir turbulence are enhanced by the strong linear superimposition effect of LCs, while the skewness and kurtosis are reduced by the combination of the linear superimposition effect and nonlinear modulation effect of LCs. Based on the scalings of these effects, a new predictive model of wall shear stress fluctuations is proposed for shallow-water Langmuir turbulence. The proposed model can predict the spatial distribution and statistics of wall shear stress fluctuations using the LCs parts of velocity fluctuations measured above the water bottom. Owing to the persistence of the spanwise inhomogeneity of wall shear stresses induced by full-depth LCs, the new predictive model will be useful for improving the wall-layer modelling for shallow-water Langmuir turbulent flows.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Journal||Journal of Fluid Mechanics|
|State||Published - Jul 10 2022|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was partially supported by the Office of Naval Research, National Science Foundation, and Minnesota Sea Grant.
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- turbulent boundary layers
- wave-turbulence interactions