Bottom-up design of biomimetic assemblies

Raymond S. Tu, Matthew Tirrell

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

186 Scopus citations


Nature has evolved the ability to assemble a variety of molecules into functional architectures that can specifically bind cellular ligands. Mimicking this strategy requires the design of a set of multifaceted molecules, where elements that direct assembly were conjugated to biologically specific components. The development of functional molecular building-blocks that assemble to form compartments for therapeutics addresses the desire to have controllable morphologies that interact with biological interfaces at nanometer length scales. The practical application of such 'bottom-up' assemblies requires the ability to predict the type of aggregated structure and to synthesize molecules in a highly controlled fashion. This bottom-up approach results in a molecular platform that mimics biological systems with potential for encapsulating and delivering drug molecules.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1537-1563
Number of pages27
JournalAdvanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Issue number11
StatePublished - Sep 22 2004
Externally publishedYes


  • Bioconjugation
  • Block-co-polymer micelles
  • Peptide assemblies
  • Targeted drug delivery


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