Bone marrow cytological findings in 4 dogs and a cat with hemophagocytic syndrome

Raquel M. Walton, Jaime F. Modiano, Mary Anna Thrall, Steven L. Wheeler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

38 Scopus citations

Abstract

Hemophagocytic syndrome or hemophagic histiocytosis was diagnosed in 4 dogs and 1 cat by evaluation of bone marrow aspirate smears. One of the dogs had a suspected infection with canine parvovirus and a confirmed infection with Salmonella spp, 2 dogs had presumptive diagnoses of myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disease, respectively, and 1 dog died without a diagnosis. The cat had hepatic lipidosis and lesions compatible with feline calicivirus infection. All animals had cytopenias involving 2 or more cell lines, and fragmented erythrocytes in the blood, along with mild to moderate increases in the number of macrophages in the bone marrow. Numerous marrow macrophages contained phagocytized hematopoietic cells. Other cytological features of the bone marrow were variable in each patient, but the degree of response in the blood was inadequate, even in those with bone marrow hyperplasia. The phagocytosis of hematopoietic elements did not appear to be caused by a primary immune disorder, but rather by the inappropriate activation of normal macrophages secondary to infectious, neoplastic, or metabolic diseases. These findings suggest that hemophagocytic syndrome may be an important factor in the development of cytopenias; the data also support the cytological evaluation of bone marrow aspirates as an aid in the diagnosis of hemophagocytic syndrome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)7-14
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of veterinary internal medicine
Volume10
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1996
Externally publishedYes

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