Bone stress injuries (BSI) are common among distance runners and research investigations examining risk factors for BSI among men are limited. Therefore, investigations are needed to determine if men with a history of BSI have skeletal properties that may heighten BSI incidence.
OBJECTIVES: To analyze differences in bone density, bone geometry, and estimates of bone strength in male runners with and without a BSI history.
METHODS: We recruited 36 male distance runners ages 18-41 for this study. We used peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) to assess volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD, mg/mm 3), bone geometry (total and cortical bone area, mm 2), tibia robustness (total area/tibia length, mm) and estimates of bone strength (section modulus and polar strength-strain index, mm 3) at 5 tibial sites.
RESULTS: After adjusting for age, the BSI group had more slender tibias (9%), lower stress strain indices (-16%), lower section moduli (-17%) and smaller total cross-sectional (-11%) and cortical areas (-12%) at the 66% site of the tibia compared with controls (P < 0.05 for all). Similar differences were found at all other measurement sites. After adjusting for body size, differences in bone outcomes remained significant at the 66% site.
CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that men with a history of BSI have lower estimated bending strength compared to controls because of narrower tibias. However, differences are largely attenuated in the distal ½ of the tibia after adjusting for body size. Thus, smaller tibia size, particularly at the mid-diaphysis, may be an important indicator for BSI incidence.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2019 Sports Medicine Australia
- Bone imaging
- Peripheral quantitative computed tomography
- Stress fracture
- Volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD)
- Bone Density
- Cross-Sectional Studies
- Tomography, X-Ray Computed
- Athletic Injuries/diagnostic imaging
- Young Adult
- Lower Extremity/diagnostic imaging
- Fractures, Stress/diagnostic imaging
- Tibia/diagnostic imaging
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article