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A hydrostatic transmission consists of a hydraulic pump driving a hydraulic motor, a configuration that is commonly used in construction and agricultural equipment. With a superior power-to-weight ratio and continuously variable transmission capability, an HST is an ideal candidate for a wind turbine drivetrain. To validate the performance of an HST as a wind turbine drivetrain, a novel power regenerative HST dynamometer was successfully designed, constructed, and commissioned. The dynamometer is a multi-domain system, consisting of electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic components. Modeling of such multi-energy domains needs a unified and systematic approach. Bond graph modeling is well suited for this complex system. In this paper, a bond graph model of the HST wind turbine and power regenerative dynamometer is developed. The state equations are generated from the bond graph model. The system is ill-conditioned in the limit of incompressibility and no leakage. The input-output coupling is analyzed using the bond graph model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)27-34
Number of pages8
JournalSimulation Series
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2021
Externally publishedYes
Event2021 International Conference on Bond Graph Modeling and Simulation, ICBGM 2021 - San Diego, United States
Duration: Nov 8 2021Nov 10 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This project is funded by the National Science Foundation under grant 1634396. We also thank Eaton, Linde, Danfoss, Bosch Rexroth, Flo-tech, and ExxonMobil for donating the components for the dynamometer. We are thankful to our other graduate students in our lab for helping us in setting up the experiments.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Society for Modeling & Simulation International (SCS)


  • Bond graph modeling
  • Dynamometer
  • Hydrostatic transmission
  • Wind turbine


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