Introduction: The body surface Laplacian electrocardiogram (ECG) mapping provides a noninvasive means for spatiotemporal mapping of cardiac electrical events. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between the Laplacian ECG and the underlying cardiac activities during ventricular depolarization in healthy human subjects. Methods and Results: A 95-channel body surface potential ECG was recorded over the anterolateral chest from 11 healthy male subjects. The surface Laplacian (SL) ECG was estimated from the recorded potentials during QRS complex by means of a novel spline SL estimator, as well as by the conventional 5-point SL estimator for comparison purpose. A simulation study was also conducted using a realistic geometry heart-torso model in an attempt to qualitatively interpret the experimental results. For all subjects, more spatial details were observed in the SL ECG maps compared with the potential ECG maps, with spline SL more robust against noise than the 5-point SL. In total, three positive activities (denoted as P1, P2, P3) and four negative activities (denoted as N1, N2, N3, N4) in the spline SL ECG maps were observed during ventricular depolarization. Initial localized P1 and N1 activities were observed in 11 and 8 subjects, respectively. Then, the initial P1 was divided into three positive activities (P1, P2, P3) in 9 subjects. After the appearance of multiple positive activities, three negative activities (N2, N3, N4) appeared in 11, 8, and 9 subjects, respectively. Similar findings were obtained in the computer simulation study. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that the SL ECG provides more spatial details than the potential ECG, and multiple simultaneously active ventricular activities could be revealed in the SL ECG maps. The results suggest that the SL ECG may provide an alternative for noninvasive mapping of cardiac electrical activity.
- Anisotropic computer heart model
- Body surface Laplacian map
- Body surface potential map
- Normal ventricular depolarization
- Spline Laplacian electrocardiogram