Body Mass Index Trajectories and Biomarkers of Cardiometabolic Risk in Children from Low-Income and Racially and Ethnically Diverse Households

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Abstract

Background: This study examined the associations between BMI trajectories and emerging cardiometabolic risk (CMR) in children living in low-income and racially and ethnically diverse households in the United States. Methods: Data were drawn from NET-Works randomized intervention trial and NET-Works 2 prospective follow-up study ( N  = 338). BMI was measured across 6 follow-up visits and biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk (CMR) at the sixth visit. Group-based trajectory modeling identified child BMI trajectories. Adjusted multivariable linear regressions evaluated the associations between BMI trajectories and CMR. Results: We identified two BMI trajectories: 25% followed a trajectory of steep BMI increase, and 75% followed a moderate decreasing BMI trajectory over time. Relative to children in the moderate decreasing trajectory, children in the increasing trajectory had higher adjusted mean levels of C-reactive protein [CRP; 3.3; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6 to 5.0], leptin (63.1; 95% CI: 44.3 to 81.8), triglycerides (35.4; 95% CI: 22.1 to 48.6), triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio (1.2; 95% CI: 0.8 to 1.6), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1C; 0.1; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.2), fasting glucose (1.8; 0.1 to 3.5) and insulin (8.8; 95% CI: 6.5 to 11.0), overall CMR score (0.7; 95% CI: 0.5 to 0.9), and lower adiponectin (-1.3; 95% CI: -2.5 to -0.1) and HDL (-10.8; 95% CI: -14.3 to -7.4). Conclusions: Children with high BMIs early in childhood were more likely to maintain an accelerated BMI trajectory throughout childhood, which was associated with adverse CMR in pre-adolescence. To advance health equity and support children's healthy weight and cardiovascular health trajectories, public health efforts are needed to address persistent disparities in childhood obesity and CMR.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalChildhood obesity (Print)
DOIs
StateE-pub ahead of print - Jun 15 2023

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article

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