Body Composition Changes from Infancy to 4 Years and Associations with Early Childhood Cognition in Preterm and Full-Term Children

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Abstract

Background: Infants born prematurely are at risk for neurodevelopmental complications. Early growth is associated with improved later cognition. The relationship of early proportionality and body composition with later cognition is not well established. Objectives: To assess differences in fat-free mass and adiposity (fat mass, percent body fat) changes in preterm and full-term infants through preschool age and examine associations with early childhood cognition. Methods: This is a prospective, observational study in an appropriate for gestational age cohort of 71 patients (20 preterm and 51 full-term) from infancy through preschool age. Anthropometric and body composition measurements via air displacement plethysmography were obtained during infancy at term and 3-4 months (preterm corrected ages), and at 4 years. Cognitive testing occurred at 4 years. Associations of body composition changes between visits with cognitive function were tested using linear regression. Results: In the preterm group, higher term to 4-month corrected age percent body fat gains were associated with lower working memory performance (p = 0.01), and higher 4-month corrected age to 4-year fat-free mass gains were associated with higher full-scale IQ (p = 0.03) and speed of processing performance (p ≤ 0.02). In the full-term group, higher 4-month to 4-year fat mass gains were associated with lower full-scale IQ (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Body composition gains during different time periods are associated with varying areas of cognitive function. These findings may inform interventions aimed at optimal growth.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)169-176
Number of pages8
JournalNeonatology
Volume114
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2018

Fingerprint

Body Composition
Cognition
Fats
Adipose Tissue
Plethysmography
Adiposity
Growth
Short-Term Memory
Gestational Age
Observational Studies
Linear Models
Air
Prospective Studies

Keywords

  • Adiposity
  • Body composition
  • Executive function
  • Growth, fat-free mass
  • Intelligence quotient
  • Neurodevelopmental outcome
  • Premature neonates
  • Processing speed

Cite this

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title = "Body Composition Changes from Infancy to 4 Years and Associations with Early Childhood Cognition in Preterm and Full-Term Children",
abstract = "Background: Infants born prematurely are at risk for neurodevelopmental complications. Early growth is associated with improved later cognition. The relationship of early proportionality and body composition with later cognition is not well established. Objectives: To assess differences in fat-free mass and adiposity (fat mass, percent body fat) changes in preterm and full-term infants through preschool age and examine associations with early childhood cognition. Methods: This is a prospective, observational study in an appropriate for gestational age cohort of 71 patients (20 preterm and 51 full-term) from infancy through preschool age. Anthropometric and body composition measurements via air displacement plethysmography were obtained during infancy at term and 3-4 months (preterm corrected ages), and at 4 years. Cognitive testing occurred at 4 years. Associations of body composition changes between visits with cognitive function were tested using linear regression. Results: In the preterm group, higher term to 4-month corrected age percent body fat gains were associated with lower working memory performance (p = 0.01), and higher 4-month corrected age to 4-year fat-free mass gains were associated with higher full-scale IQ (p = 0.03) and speed of processing performance (p ≤ 0.02). In the full-term group, higher 4-month to 4-year fat mass gains were associated with lower full-scale IQ (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Body composition gains during different time periods are associated with varying areas of cognitive function. These findings may inform interventions aimed at optimal growth.",
keywords = "Adiposity, Body composition, Executive function, Growth, fat-free mass, Intelligence quotient, Neurodevelopmental outcome, Premature neonates, Processing speed",
author = "Scheurer, {Johannah M} and Lei Zhang and Plummer, {Erin A} and Hultgren, {Solveig A.} and Demerath, {Ellen W} and Ramel, {Sara E}",
year = "2018",
month = "7",
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doi = "10.1159/000487915",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "114",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Body Composition Changes from Infancy to 4 Years and Associations with Early Childhood Cognition in Preterm and Full-Term Children

AU - Scheurer, Johannah M

AU - Zhang, Lei

AU - Plummer, Erin A

AU - Hultgren, Solveig A.

AU - Demerath, Ellen W

AU - Ramel, Sara E

PY - 2018/7/1

Y1 - 2018/7/1

N2 - Background: Infants born prematurely are at risk for neurodevelopmental complications. Early growth is associated with improved later cognition. The relationship of early proportionality and body composition with later cognition is not well established. Objectives: To assess differences in fat-free mass and adiposity (fat mass, percent body fat) changes in preterm and full-term infants through preschool age and examine associations with early childhood cognition. Methods: This is a prospective, observational study in an appropriate for gestational age cohort of 71 patients (20 preterm and 51 full-term) from infancy through preschool age. Anthropometric and body composition measurements via air displacement plethysmography were obtained during infancy at term and 3-4 months (preterm corrected ages), and at 4 years. Cognitive testing occurred at 4 years. Associations of body composition changes between visits with cognitive function were tested using linear regression. Results: In the preterm group, higher term to 4-month corrected age percent body fat gains were associated with lower working memory performance (p = 0.01), and higher 4-month corrected age to 4-year fat-free mass gains were associated with higher full-scale IQ (p = 0.03) and speed of processing performance (p ≤ 0.02). In the full-term group, higher 4-month to 4-year fat mass gains were associated with lower full-scale IQ (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Body composition gains during different time periods are associated with varying areas of cognitive function. These findings may inform interventions aimed at optimal growth.

AB - Background: Infants born prematurely are at risk for neurodevelopmental complications. Early growth is associated with improved later cognition. The relationship of early proportionality and body composition with later cognition is not well established. Objectives: To assess differences in fat-free mass and adiposity (fat mass, percent body fat) changes in preterm and full-term infants through preschool age and examine associations with early childhood cognition. Methods: This is a prospective, observational study in an appropriate for gestational age cohort of 71 patients (20 preterm and 51 full-term) from infancy through preschool age. Anthropometric and body composition measurements via air displacement plethysmography were obtained during infancy at term and 3-4 months (preterm corrected ages), and at 4 years. Cognitive testing occurred at 4 years. Associations of body composition changes between visits with cognitive function were tested using linear regression. Results: In the preterm group, higher term to 4-month corrected age percent body fat gains were associated with lower working memory performance (p = 0.01), and higher 4-month corrected age to 4-year fat-free mass gains were associated with higher full-scale IQ (p = 0.03) and speed of processing performance (p ≤ 0.02). In the full-term group, higher 4-month to 4-year fat mass gains were associated with lower full-scale IQ (p = 0.03). Conclusions: Body composition gains during different time periods are associated with varying areas of cognitive function. These findings may inform interventions aimed at optimal growth.

KW - Adiposity

KW - Body composition

KW - Executive function

KW - Growth, fat-free mass

KW - Intelligence quotient

KW - Neurodevelopmental outcome

KW - Premature neonates

KW - Processing speed

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DO - 10.1159/000487915

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