BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccination Against Coronavirus Disease 2019 is Associated With a Decreased Likelihood of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children Aged 5-18 Years - United States, July 2021 - April 2022

Laura D. Zambrano, Margaret M. Newhams, Samantha M. Olson, Natasha B. Halasa, Ashley M. Price, Amber O. Orzel, Cameron C. Young, Julie A. Boom, Leila C. Sahni, Aline B. Maddux, Katherine E. Bline, Satoshi Kamidani, Keiko M. Tarquinio, Kathleen Chiotos, Jennifer E. Schuster, Melissa L. Cullimore, Sabrina M. Heidemann, Charlotte V. Hobbs, Ryan A. Nofziger, Pia S. PannarajMelissa A. Cameron, Tracie C. Walker, Stephanie P. Schwartz, Kelly N. Michelson, Bria M. Coates, Heidi R. Flori, Elizabeth H. Mack, Laura Smallcomb, Shira J. Gertz, Samina S. Bhumbra, Tamara T. Bradford, Emily R. Levy, Michele Kong, Katherine Irby, Natalie Z. Cvijanovich, Matt S. Zinter, Cindy Bowens, Hillary Crandall, Janet R. Hume, Manish M. Patel, Angela P. Campbell, Adrienne G. Randolph

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), linked to antecedent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, is associated with considerable morbidity. Prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by vaccination might also decrease MIS-C likelihood. Methods: In a multicenter, case-control, public health investigation of children ages 5-18 years hospitalized from 1 July 2021 to 7 April 2022, we compared the odds of being fully vaccinated (2 doses of BNT162b2 vaccine ≥28 days before hospital admission) between MIS-C case-patients and hospital-based controls who tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. These associations were examined by age group, timing of vaccination, and periods of Delta and Omicron variant predominance using multivariable logistic regression. Results: We compared 304 MIS-C case-patients (280 [92%] unvaccinated) with 502 controls (346 [69%] unvaccinated). MIS-C was associated with decreased likelihood of vaccination (adjusted OR [aOR]:. 16; 95% CI:. 10-.26), including among children ages 5-11 years (aOR:. 22; 95% CI:. 10-.52), ages 12-18 years (aOR:. 10; 95% CI:. 05-.19), and during the Delta (aOR:. 06; 95% CI:. 02-.15) and Omicron (aOR:. 22; 95% CI:. 11-.42) variant-predominant periods. This association persisted beyond 120 days after the second dose (aOR:. 08; 95% CI:. 03-.22) in 12-18-year-olds. Among all MIS-C case-patients, 187 (62%) required intensive care unit admission and 280 (92%) vaccine-eligible case-patients were unvaccinated. Conclusions: Vaccination with 2 doses of BNT162b2 is associated with reduced likelihood of MIS-C in children ages 5-18 years. Most vaccine-eligible hospitalized patients with MIS-C were unvaccinated.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E90-E100
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Volume76
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Potential conflicts of interest. J. E. S. reports institutional support from Merck for an RSV research study, unrelated to the current work. A. G. R. reports institutional support from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National Institutes of Health (NIH); royalties from UpToDate as the Pediatric Critical Care Section Editor; and participation on a data safety monitoring board (DSMB) for a National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD)–funded study. P. S. P. reports institutional support from AstraZeneca and Pfizer, consulting fees from Sanofi-Pasteur and Seqirus, payment from law firms for expert testimony, participation on a Division of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases DSMB (paid to author), and an unpaid leadership role in the California Immunization Coalition. R. A. N. reports institutional support from NIH for participation in a multicenter influenza study. S. K. reports institutional support from NIH and Pfizer. C. V. H. reports consulting fees from Dynamed (clinical database, reviewer) and honoraria from Biofire/Biomerieux, and funding from CDC to the University of Mississippi Medical Center. N. B. H. reports grants from Sanofi and Quidel and an educational grant from Genentech. N. Z. C. reports a speaker’s registration discount at the Society of Critical Care Medicine meeting and grants or contracts from the NIH, unrelated to this work and paid to their institution. S. S. B. reports receipt of an NIH, NIAID training grant during 1 September 2019–31 August 2020 (T32AI007637). M. L. C. reports grants or contracts unrelated to this work from the CDC, paid to their institution. H. R. F. reports grants or contracts unrelated to this work from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) and NICHD, paid to their institution; support for attending meetings and/or travel from the Society of Critical Care Medicine; participation on a DSMB for a cardiothoracic surgery trial—single center—and for intrathecal chemotherapy trial; an unpaid leadership or fiduciary role on the Michigan Thoracic Society Executive Committee and PALISI Network Executive Committee; other financial or nonfinancial interests in the Lucira Health advisory committee and Aerogen Pharma—advisor—unfunded. J. R. H. reports grants or contracts unrelated to this work from the NICHD, paid to their institution; participation on a DSMB for institutional study at the University of Minnesota, “Magnesium sulfate as adjuvant analgesia and its effect on opiate use by post-operative transplant patients in the pediatric ICU” (Magnesium sulfate as Investigational New Drug [IND] per the Food and Drug Administration [FDA]; no financial reimbursements). E. R. L. reports the following grants or contracts unrelated to this work and paid to their institution—AI 144301-01: An Observational Cohort Study to Determine Late Outcomes and Immunological Responses after Infection with SARS-CoV-2 in Children with and without MIS-C; and NIH AI 154470-01: Immunobiology of Influenza Virus-related Critical Illness in Young Hosts. E. H. M. reports an unpaid role as Vice President of the South Carolina Chapter of the American Academy of Pediatrics. L. S. reports conference attendance allowance from Medical University of South Carolina. Matthew Zinter reports the following grant or contract unrelated to this work: NHLBI K23HL146936. All other authors report no potential conflicts. All authors have submitted the ICMJE Form for Disclosure of Potential Conflicts of Interest. Conflicts that the editors consider relevant to the content of the manuscript have been disclosed.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Infectious Diseases Society of America.

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • MIS-C
  • Pfizer (BioNTech)
  • children
  • vaccine effectiveness

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