Blocked element compensation in phased array imaging

Pai chi Li, Stephen W. Flax, Emad S. Ebbini, Matthew O'Donnell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Scopus citations


In clinical applications using large apertures, a significant number of phased array elements may be blocked due to discontinuous acoustic windows into the body. These blocked elements produce undesired beamforming artifacts degrading spatial and contrast resolution. To minimize these artifacts, an algorithm using multiple receive beams and total least squares (TLS) method is proposed in this paper. Simulations and experimental results show that this algorithm can effectively reduce imperfections in the point spread function of the imager. Combined with first- and second-order scatterer statistics derived from multiple receive beams, the algorithm is modified for blocked elements compensation on distributed scattering sources. Results also indicate that compensated images are comparable to full array images. Indeed, even full array images can be improved by removing undesired sidelobe contributions. This method, therefore, can enhance detection of low contrast lesion using large phased array apertures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)283-292
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 1993

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received November 5, 1992; revised and accepted March 30, 1993. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health under Grant CA 54896 and by the General Electric Company. P.-C. Li, E. S. Ebbini, and M. O’Donnell are with the Electrical Engineering and Science Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2122. S. W. Flax is with Flextech Systems, Inc., Brookfield, WI 53005. IEEE Log Number 9209829.

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