Role of OX40 blockade was investigated in islet xenograft model in chemically diabetic C57B1/6 and spontaneously diabetic NOD mice. The effect of OX40/OX40L blockade on effector function of diabetogenic T cells was studied in an adoptive transfer model. 2000 IEQ of porcine islets were transplanted under the kidney capsule of diabetic C57B1/6 or NOD mice and were treated i.p. with control Ig, anti-OX40L, or CTLA4Ig. Graft survival was assessed using blood glucose (BG) measurement. Cells from diabetic NOD spleens and pancreatic lymphnodes were injected i.v. into NOD.scid mice. Recipients were treated i.p. with anti-OX40L, CTLA4Ig alone, or in combination; control mice received Ig. Diabetes incidence was assessed using BG measurement. Anti-OX40L treatment delayed xenoislet rejection significantly in chemically diabetic animals, although CTLA4Ig delayed rejection even further. Neither treatment completely prevented rejection. In spontaneously diabetic NOD mice, rejection of xenoislet graft was delayed by anti-OX40L treatment but not by CTLA4Ig. Anti-OX40L alone and in combination with CTLA4Ig significantly delayed diabetes transfer by activated diabetogenic T cells, compared with control and CTLA4Ig treatment. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggest that anti-OX40L treatment preserves Treg numbers, unlike CTLA4Ig that diminishes Tregs. Our studies show that OX40 blockade offers better xenoislet graft survival than CTLA4Ig in spontaneous autoimmune NOD model, suggesting that preactivated T cells use alternate costimulatory pathways, independent of CD28. Results from adoptive transfer studies further support the role of OX40 signaling in effector function of diabetogenic T cells. These data suggest that OX40/OX40L may offer novel therapeutic target for xenoislet graft protection in type 1 diabetic patients.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||3|
|State||Published - Mar 2008|
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF) (1-04-JF-05).