Blind high-resolution localization and tracking of multiple frequency hopped signals

Xiangqian Liu, Nikolaos Sidiropoulos, Ananthram Swami

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

85 Scopus citations


This paper considers the problem of blind localization and tracking of multiple frequency-hopped spread-spectrum signals using a uniform linear antenna array without knowledge of hopping patterns or directions of arrival. As a preprocessing step, we propose to identify a hop-free subset of data by discarding high.entropy spectral slices from the spectrogram. High-resolution localization is then achieved via either quadrilinear regression of four-way data generated by capitalizing on both spatial and temporal shift invariance or a new maximum likelihood (ML)-based two-dimensional (2-D) harmonic retrieval algorithm. The latter option achieves the best-known model identifiability bound while remaining close to the Cramér-Rao bound even at low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). Following beamforming using the recovered directions, a dynamic programming approach is developed for joint ML estimation of signal frequencies and hop instants in single-user tracking. The efficacy of the proposed algorithms is illustrated in pertinent simulations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)889-901
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Signal Processing
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2002

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received July 5, 2001; revised December 10, 2001. This work was supported by subcontract participation in DARPA/ATO under Contract MDA 972-01-0056, the ARL Communications and Networks CTA, and the National Science Foundation/Wireless 0096164. The associate editor coordinating the review of this paper and approving it for publication was Dr. Naofal M. W. Al-Dhahir.


  • Array signal processing
  • Direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation
  • Frequency estimation
  • Frequency hopping
  • Harmonic analysis


Dive into the research topics of 'Blind high-resolution localization and tracking of multiple frequency hopped signals'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this