Birth Seasonality in Sub-Saharan Africa

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    Abstract

    INTRODUCTION
    Despite humans’ ability to reproduce throughout the year, almost all human populations exhibit seasonal variation in reproduction. The seasonality of births has been extensively studied in North America, Europe, and East Asia but less so in African settings. This paper is the first to systematically test for and document birth seasonality in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    DATA AND METHODS
    Birth data from the Demographic and Health Surveys are aggregated by country and eco- logical zone. The monthly time series of births are then de-trended and converted to a percent deviation from the annual monthly mean. Finally, we calculate the periodicity of the de-trended monthly birth time series using Fourier spectral analysis and ordinary least squares regression.

    RESULTS
    At the national level, births are indeed seasonal with only a few exceptions. However, we find large degrees of variation in the amplitudes (i.e., from five percent to 65 per- cent) and patterns (i.e., unimodal, bimodal, etc.) of seasonality across regions. Birth patterns varied with levels of maternal education, religion, and residence (i.e., urban vs. rural). Typically, mothers with lower levels of education and those residing in rural lo- cales exhibited greater seasonal fluctuations in births. Births in West and Central African ecological zones were highly seasonal, while births in many Eastern and Southern eco- logical zones were not seasonal. The Eastern and Southern zones were large and included strongly heterogeneous environments and people; these heterogeneities may have masked some of the seasonal patterns.
    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Article number27
    Pages (from-to)761-796
    JournalDemographic Research
    Volume34
    StatePublished - May 4 2016

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