Biomonitoring the cooked meat carcinogen 2-amino-1-methyl-6- phenylimidazo[4,5-b ]pyridine in canine fur

Dan Gu, Zachary L. Neuman, Jaime F. Modiano, Robert J. Turesky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a heterocyclic aromatic amine (HAA) that is formed during the cooking of meat, poultry, and fish. PhIP is a rodent carcinogen and is thought to contribute to several diet-related cancers in humans. PhIP is present in the hair of human omnivores but not in the hair of vegetarians. We have now identified PhIP in the fur of 14 out of 16 healthy dogs consuming different brands of commercial pet food. The levels of PhIP in canine fur varied by over 85-fold and were comparable to the levels of PhIP present in human hair. However, high density fur containing PhIP covers a very high proportion of the body surface area of dogs, whereas high density terminal hair primarily covers the scalp and pubis body surface area of humans. These findings signify that the exposure and bioavailability of PhIP are high in canines. A potential role for PhIP in the etiology of canine cancer should be considered.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9371-9375
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of agricultural and food chemistry
Issue number36
StatePublished - Sep 12 2012


  • biomonitoring
  • canine fur
  • carcinogens
  • heterocyclic aromatic amines


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