Biomechanical effect of a two‐segment anterior cruciate ligament graft with separate femoral attachments and differing levels of prescribed load sharing

Thomas T.H. Chao, William D. Lew, Jack L Lewis, Conrad M Lindquist, Boyang Hong, Elizabeth Arendt

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations

Abstract

The objective of this study was to analyze the biomechanical effect of varying the level of prescribed load sharing between two segments of an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft, and of separating the femoral attachments of these segments. Total anterior‐posterior (AP) laxity was measured using an instrumented spatial linkage. Forces in graft segments were measured using buckle transducers. The two‐segment graft was formed using the middle third of the patellar tendon with bone blocks and a synthetic augmentation device. Proximal fixation was obtained using a fixture which allowed changing the individual locations of the femoral attachments of the tendon and augmentation segments. Distal fixation was achieved using a force‐setting device which allowed the loads in each segment to be set to prescribed levels. Total graft force, load sharing, and total AP laxity were recorded during the application of 100‐N AP tibial loads at 0°, 30°, 60°, 90°, and 110° flexion, for various combinations of load sharing set at extension and locations of femoral attachment sites. The load sharing, total graft force, and AP laxity during AP loading at the five test flexion angles were not significantly affected by changing the prescribed level of load sharing set at extension for a given femoral attachment configuration. However, varying the separate hole locations of the graft segments for a given level of load sharing significantly affected load sharing, total graft force, and AP laxity. If the tendon graft was located posteriorly (on the medial surface of the lateral femoral condyle) and the augmentation segment proximally, the augmentation carried a greater portion of the total force in flexion. If the augmentation segment was changed to a more posterosuperior location and the tendon posteroinferior, the tendon carried a higher percentage of the total force in flexion. AP laxity in most reconstruction states was significantly greater than in the normal joint with an intact ACL. The nature of the load sharing between the graft segments under AP tibial load over the flexion range can be controlled by the appropriate choice of the segments' femoral attachment locations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)868-877
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Orthopaedic Research
Volume10
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1992

Keywords

  • Anterior cruciate ligament
  • Augmentation
  • Fixation site
  • Graft
  • Load sharing
  • Reconstruction

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