Epidemiologic, clinical, and basic research has identified several antecedent conditions that predispose individuals to heart failure and its predecessor, asymptomatic left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction (stage B heart failure). Many biochemical markers have been described that characterize the remodeling process and the development of cardiac dysfunction. Although natriuretic peptides and cardiac troponin are currently used in the context of diagnosis, risk stratification, and management of stage C and D heart failure, many other biomarkers provide insights into the underlying pathophysiology of left ventricular dysfunction, suggesting new directions for fundamental research or the development of new therapies.
- Brain natriuretic peptide
- Heart failure