Bone cancer pain is a devastating manifestation of metastatic cancer. Unfortunately, current therapies can be ineffective, and when they are effective, the duration of the patient's survival typically exceeds the duration of pain relief. New, mechanistically based therapies are desperately needed. Study of experimental animal models has provided insight into the mechanisms that drive bone cancer pain and provides an opportunity for developing targeted therapies. Mechanisms that drive bone cancer pain include tumor-directed osteoclast-mediated osteolysis, tumor cells themselves, tumor-induced nerve injury, stimulation of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ion channel, endothelin A, and host cell production of nerve growth factor. Current and future therapies include external beam radiation, osteoclast-targeted inhibiting agents, antiinflammatory drugs, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 antagonists, and antibody therapies that target nerve growth factor or tumor angiogenesis. It is likely that a combination of these therapies will be superior to any one therapy alone.