Meromictic lakes with anoxic bottom waters often have active methane cycles whereby methane is generally produced biogenically under anoxic conditions and oxidized in oxic surface waters prior to reaching the atmosphere. Lakes that contain dissolved ferrous iron in their deep waters (i.e., ferruginous) are rare, but valuable, as geochemical analogues of the conditions that dominated the Earth's oceans during the Precambrian when interactions between the iron and methane cycles could have shaped the greenhouse regulation of the planet's climate. Here, we explored controls on the methane fluxes from Brownie Lake and Canyon Lake, two ferruginous meromictic lakes that contain similar concentrations (max. >1 mM) of dissolved methane in their bottom waters. The order Methanobacteriales was the dominant methanogen detected in both lakes. At Brownie Lake, methanogen abundance, an increase in methane concentration with respect to depths closer to the sediment, and isotopic data suggest methanogenesis is an active process in the anoxic water column. At Canyon Lake, methanogenesis occurred primarily in the sediment. The most abundant aerobic methane-oxidizing bacteria present in both water columns were associated with the Gammaproteobacteria, with little evidence of anaerobic methane oxidizing organisms being present or active. Direct measurements at the surface revealed a methane flux from Brownie Lake that was two orders of magnitude greater than the flux from Canyon Lake. Comparison of measured versus calculated turbulent diffusive fluxes indicates that most of the methane flux at Brownie Lake was non-diffusive. Although the turbulent diffusive methane flux at Canyon Lake was attenuated by methane oxidizing bacteria, dissolved methane was detected in the epilimnion, suggestive of lateral transport of methane from littoral sediments. These results highlight the importance of direct measurements in estimating the total methane flux from water columns, and that non-diffusive transport of methane may be important to consider from other ferruginous systems.
- methane flux
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
- Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.