Biochemical and structural characterization of bisubstrate inhibitors of BasE, the self-standing nonribosomal peptide synthetase adenylate-forming enzyme of acinetobactin synthesis

Eric J. Drake, Benjamin P. Duckworth, João Neres, Courtney C. Aldrich, Andrew M. Gulick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations

Abstract

The human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii produces a siderophore called acinetobactin that is derived from one molecule each of threonine, histidine, and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB). The activity of several nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) enzymes is used to combine the building blocks into the final molecule. The acinetobactin synthesis pathway initiates with a self-standing adenylation enzyme, BasE, that activates the DHB molecule and covalently transfers it to the pantetheine cofactor of an aryl-carrier protein of BasF, a strategy that is shared with many siderophore-producing NRPS clusters. In this reaction, DHB reacts with ATP to form the aryl adenylate and pyrophosphate. In a second partial reaction, the DHB is transferred to the carrier protein. Inhibitors of BasE and related enzymes have been identified that prevent growth of bacteria on iron-limiting media. Recently, a new inhibitor of BasE has been identified via high-throughput screening using a fluorescence polarization displacement assay. We present here biochemical and structural studies to examine the binding mode of this inhibitor. The kinetics of the wild-type BasE enzyme is shown, and inhibition studies demonstrate that the new compound exhibits competitive inhibition against both ATP and 2,3-dihydroxybenzoate. Structural examination of BasE bound to this inhibitor illustrates a novel binding mode in which the phenyl moiety partially fills the enzyme pantetheine binding tunnel. Structures of rationally designed bisubstrate inhibitors are also presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9292-9305
Number of pages14
JournalBiochemistry
Volume49
Issue number43
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2 2010

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