Hepatic secretions of biliary lipids were determined in eight young women with cholesterol gallstones and 14 white women without gallstones. All of the gallstone patients were non-Indian; seven were white and one was black. Hourly outputs of biliary cholesterol were significantly greater in gallstone patients than in white controls. This increased cholesterol output was a major factor in the production of lithogenic bile. The greater cholesterol output in gallstone patients was apparently related to obesity. Despite an increased hepatic secretion of cholesterol, secretion rates of bile acids were relatively low in gallstone patients. However, there was considerable overlap between secretion rates of bile acids in subjects with and without stones, and it was not demonstrated that an absolute deficiency of bile acids existed in gallstone patients. Nevertheless, the contribution of an increased output of biliary cholesterol to the formation of lithogenic bile was clearly evident in our patients.