Beyond diagnosis: Prepubescent gender expansive children on the margins of clinical measures

Dianne R Berg, Ghazel Tellawi, Sloan Okrey Anderson, G. Nic Rider

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Few clinical measures are available for use with transgender and gender-expansive (TGE) prepubescent children. This qualitative study includes 65 TGE children, ages 4–12, with 21 identifying as boys, 34 as girls, and 10 as nonbinary. Race/ethnicity reported by parents: 72.3% White, 7.7% Asian, 6.2% Hispanic/Latinx, 4.6% multiple races, 3.1% Black/African American, 1.5% American Indian or Alaskan Native, and 4.6% were missing race/ethnicity data. Children's responses to clinical measures identified these themes: dysphoria, identity statements, gender statements, contentment with self, and anticipatory statements. Findings highlight the need to develop clinical measures that center children's voices, are inclusive of all gender identities, and go beyond diagnostic criteria to better reflect and understand the meaning children make of gender-related experiences.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere2311
JournalInfant and Child Development
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding for this project was provided by the Grant‐in‐Aid of Research, Artistry, and Scholarship through the Office of the Vice President for Research, University of Minnesota.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


  • children
  • gender creative
  • gender development
  • gender diverse
  • gender expansive
  • transgender


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