The present study assessed the incremental effectiveness of behavioral self-help materials specifically written to accompany nicotine gum. Subjects (187 women and 117 men) were randomly assigned either behavioral self-help booklets or a factual information pamphlet. All subjects received prescriptions for Nicorette® from study physicians. Contrary to prediction, subjects provided self-help booklets fared no better than did subjects provided comparison pamphlets. Overall abstinence levels were encouraging, however. Nicotine gum users were far more likely than nonusers to maintain abstinence through 6-month follow-up. Perhaps self-help materials could be improved by condensing and simplifying content and by adopting a more attractive multicolored pictorial format.