Behavior of shear studs in steel frames with reinforced concrete infill walls

William K. Saari, Jerome F. Hajjar, Arturo E Schultz, Carol K Shield

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

112 Scopus citations


This paper reports on the behavior of headed shear stud connectors for use in steel frames with partially restrained connections and reinforced concrete infill walls, attached compositely to the steel frame around the perimeter of each wall panel (S-RCW system), subjected to seismic loading. In infill walls, the shear connectors lie in the plane of the concrete panel, which results in different behavior from studs in composite beams, for which the majority of past research has been conducted. In particular, shear connectors in infill walls are subjected to axial tension and compression forces due to sidesway and overturning of the S-RCW system, are influenced by the parallel edges of the wall, and are subjected to cyclic forces. An experimental program was developed to quantify the strength and deformation capacities of shear studs for use in S-RCW infill systems addressing the above issues, and to verify existing AISC, PCI, ACI, and Japanese design equations. A modification of the classic push-out test setup was made to accommodate the application of cyclic shear loading and axial tensile loading. Two different steel reinforcement configurations were used, one providing little confining reinforcement around the shear studs, and the other utilizing a steel reinforcement cage to provide ample confinement to the shear stud.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1453-1480
Number of pages28
JournalJournal of Constructional Steel Research
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2004

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding for this research was provided by the National Science Foundation (NSF) (Grant No. CMS-9632506) under Dr. Shih-Chi Liu, the Department of Education through a GAANN fellowship for the first author, and the University of Minnesota. In-kind funding and materials were provided by LeJeune Steel Company, Minneapolis, Minnesota. The authors gratefully acknowledge this support. The authors would like to thank Mr. L.A. Wyllie, Degenkolb Engineers, Dr. V. Mujamdar, National Science Foundation, Dr. S.A. Mahin, University of California at Berkeley, and the other members of the Hybrid Wall Systems coordination group of the NSF US–Japan Cooperative Research Program on Composite and Hybrid Structures for providing advise throughout this research project. The authors would also like to thank Mr. P.M. Bergson, University of Minnesota, Mr. L.A. Kloiber, LeJeune Steel Co., Minneapolis, Minnesota, Mr. N. Ojard, Geiger Engineers, and X. Tong, Walter P. Moore Engineers for their assistance in conducting the experiments and analyses on this project. Any opinions, findings, or conclusions and recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.


  • Composite construction
  • Partially restrained steel connection
  • Reinforced concrete infill wall
  • Seismic
  • Shear connector
  • Shear stud


Dive into the research topics of 'Behavior of shear studs in steel frames with reinforced concrete infill walls'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this