BaTiO3 integration with nanostructured epitaxial (100), (110), and (111) germanium for multifunctional devices

Mantu K. Hudait, Yan Zhu, Nikhil Jain, Deepam Maurya, Yuan Zhou, Ron Varghese, Shashank Priya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations


Ferroelectric-germanium heterostructures have a strong potential for multifunctional devices. Germanium (Ge) is attractive due to its higher electron and hole mobilities while ferroelectric BaTiO3 is promising due to its high relative permittivity, which can make next-generation low-voltage and low-leakage metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors. Here, we investigate the growth, structural, chemical, and band alignment properties of pulsed laser deposited BaTiO3 on epitaxial (100)Ge, (110)Ge, and (111)Ge layers. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy micrographs show the amorphous nature of the BaTiO3 layer and also show a sharp heterointerface between BaTiO3 and Ge. The appearance of strong Pendellösung oscillation fringes from high-resolution X-ray diffraction implies the presence of parallel and sharp heterointerfaces. The valence band offset relation of ΔEV(100) ≥ ΔEV(111) > ΔEV(110) and the conduction band offset relation of ΔEC(110) > ΔEC(111) ≥ ΔE C(100) on crystallographically oriented Ge offer significant advancement for designing new-generation ferroelectric-germanium-based multifunctional devices.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)11446-11452
Number of pages7
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number21
StatePublished - Nov 13 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • band offsets
  • barium titanate
  • germanium
  • molecular beam epitaxy
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy


Dive into the research topics of 'BaTiO3 integration with nanostructured epitaxial (100), (110), and (111) germanium for multifunctional devices'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this