Baseline characteristics and recruitment strategies in a randomized clinical trial of African-American light smokers

Kolawole S. Okuyemi, Lisa Sanderson Cox, Nicole L. Nollen, Tricia M. Snow, Harsohena Kaur, Won Choi, Niaman Nazir, Matthew S. Mayo, Jasjit S. Ahluwalia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

45 Scopus citations


Purpose. This study describes the design, recruitment, and baseline data of the first smoking-cessation clinical trial for African-American light smokers, Kick It at Swope II (KIS-II). Design. KIS-II was a randomized trial testing the efficacy of nicotine gum (vs. placebo gum) in combination with counseling (motivational interviewing or health education). Setting. This study was conducted at an urban community-based clinic serving predominantly lower-income African-Americans. Subjects. African-Americans who smoked 1 to 10 cigarettes per day were eligible. Of 1933 individuals screened, 1012 (52%) were eligible and 755 (75%) were enrolled in the study. Measures. Baseline assessment included smoking history and psychometric measures. Analysis. The majority of participants were women (67%) with a mean age of 45.1 years (SD = 10.7). Participants smoked on average 7.6 cigarettes (SD = 3.21) per day, had a mean exhaled carbon monoxide level of 13.9 ppm (SD = 8.9) and a mean serum cotinine level of 244.2 ng/mL (SD = 154.4), and reported high levels of motivation and confidence to quit smoking. Conclusion. African-American light smokers were motivated to stop smoking and to enroll in a smoking-cessation program. Characteristics of our sample suggest African-American light smokers are an appropriate group for inclusion in smoking-cessation interventions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)183-191
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican Journal of Health Promotion
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2007


  • African-Americans
  • Clinical trial
  • Health education
  • Light smokers
  • Manuscript format: research
  • Motivational interviewing
  • Nicotine dependence
  • Nicotine gum
  • Prevention research
  • Research purpose: descriptive
  • Smoking cessation
  • Study design: randomized trial


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