Objective: Understanding how biological, cognitive, and self-regulatory factors are related to obesity, and weight regulation is clearly needed to optimize obesity prevention and treatment. The objective of this investigation was to understand how baseline biological, cognitive, and self-regulatory factors are related to adiposity at the initiation of a behavioral weight loss intervention among treatment-seeking adults with overweight/obesity. Methods: Participants (N = 107) in the Cognitive and Self-regulatory Mechanisms of Obesity Study (Identifier-NCT02786238) completed a baseline assessment with anthropometric, cardiometabolic, inflammatory, cognitive function, and self-regulation measures as part of a larger on-going trial. Data were analyzed with linear regression. Results: At baseline, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist circumference (WC) were positively associated with fasting insulin and insulin resistance. Higher WC was related to higher fasting glucose and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Higher glucose and insulin resistance levels were related to lower list sorting working memory. Higher glucose and HbA1c levels were negatively associated with reading scores. Cognitive function and self-regulation indices were unrelated. Conclusions: In adults with overweight/obesity entering a weight loss treatment study: (1) elevated WC and associated glycemic impairment were negatively associated with cognition, (2) poorer executive function and reading abilities were associated with poorer glycemic control, and (3) objectively measured cognitive functions were unrelated to self-reported/behavioral measures of self-regulation. Such findings increase understanding of the relationships between adiposity, biomarkers, cognition, and self-regulation at treatment initiation and may ultimately inform barriers to successful obesity treatment response.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This project was directly supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (K23DK103941 to Misty A.W. Hawkins). Misty A.W. Hawkins was also supported by the Center for Integrated Research on Child Adversity (CIRCA; P20GM109097) funded by the National Institute of General Medical Sciences and by the Oklahoma Shared Clinical Translational Resources Center (OSCTR; U5GM104938). Natalie G. Keirns was supported by a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute training award (NHLBI; F31HL152620). John Gunstad was supported by the National Institute on Aging (R01AG065432). Deana Hildebrand was supported under a CDC High Obesity Program and Diabetes and CVD Prevention program funds. William R. Lovallo was supported by the Department of Veterans Affairs and the NIAAA (AA12207).
© 2021 The Authors. Obesity Science & Practice published by World Obesity and The Obesity Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.