The enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 is constitutive whereas COX-2 is regulated in virtually all tissues. To assess whether this dogma holds true in the pancreatic islet, we examined basal and interleukin (IL)-1-regulated expression of COX-2 in HIT-T15 cells, Syrian hamster and human islets, and other Syrian hamster tissues. We found that COX-2, and not COX-1, gene expression is dominant in pancreatic islet tissue under both basal and IL-1- stimulated conditions. Control tissues (liver, spleen, and kidney) showed the expected predominance of COX-1 gene expression. Basal and IL-1-stimulated prostaglandin E2 synthesis were blocked by a specific COX-2 inhibitor. IL-1 stimulation had a biphasic effect on COX-2 mRNA levels with an initial mild increase at 2-4 hr followed by a more dramatic decrease below basal level by 24 hr. The IL-1-induced increase in COX-2 mRNA levels was accompanied by a parallel increase in NF-κB binding to COX-2 promoter elements. The subsequent decrease in COX-2 mRNA levels was accompanied by a parallel decrease in NF-IL-6 binding activity and COX-2 promoter activity. Specific mutation of the NF-IL-6 binding motif within the COX-2 promoter reduced basal promoter activity by 50% whereas mutation of the NF-κB motif had no effect. These studies provide documentation of NF-IL-6 in the pancreatic islet and that COX-2, rather than COX-1, is dominantly expressed. They suggest coordinate regulation by IL-1 of COX-2 mRNA, NF-κB, and NF-IL-6 and raise the issue of whether intrinsically high levels of COX-2 gene expression predisposes the normal islet for microenvironmentally induced overproduction of islet prostaglandin E2.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America|
|State||Published - Feb 17 1998|