Background: Benign solid tumors of Bartholin's gland are rare, with only six cases reported in the English language literature since 1966. Bartholin's gland hyperplasia has not been described. Case: A postmenopausal woman with painless bilateral vulvar masses underwent surgical removal of one of the masses, which revealed a well-circumscribed, nonencapsulated tumor composed of mucous glands and ducts within a dense fibrous stroma, most consistent with hyperplasia of Bartholin's gland. Conclusion: Hyperplasia represents a new etiology for the enlarged Bartholin's gland. Whether the hyperplastic gland forms in response to a stimulus is unclear. However, it appears to share some features with Bartholin's gland hamartoma or adenoma.