Barriers and Facilitators to the Online Delivery of a School-Based Intervention to Reduce Racial Trauma

Marcia J. Ash, Kristin E. Knutzen, Ighedosa Ogbeide, Tiffaney L. Renfro, Marizen R. Ramirez, Briana Woods-Jaeger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Students of color face disproportionate rates of adverse childhood experiences, including racial discrimination in school settings. Effective interventions strategies are needed to address school-based racial trauma. Link for Equity was designed to be a culturally-responsive trauma-informed intervention that includes universal cultural humility training for teachers. As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the in-person trauma-informed cultural humility training was adapted for online delivery. The purpose of this study was to assess barriers and facilitators that impacted online delivery of the training. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 25 high school teachers from three public school districts in the Midwestern United States who participated in the online training. Interview transcripts were coded by two team members, and thematic analysis was utilized. Barriers and facilitators to online delivery were identified across five domains: receptivity, logistics, engagement, comfort, and application. The implications of these barriers and facilitators are discussed and tailored recommendations for the virtual delivery of culturally-responsive trauma-informed interventions to reduce racial discrimination in schools are provided.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)750-762
Number of pages13
JournalAdministration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


  • Cultural humility
  • Equity
  • Online
  • Qualitative
  • Racial trauma
  • School
  • Trauma-informed care

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural


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