Bacterial infections continue to be a leading cause of mortality and morbidity in patients who undergo blood and marrow transplantations (BMTs). The relative importance of different clinical features (donor type, graft cell source, and conditioning regimen) on the incidence and timing of posttransplantation bacterial infections is uncertain, but a detailed analysis could better guide prevention and therapy. We retrospectively analyzed the incidence and risk factors for early bacterial infections, as well as patterns of antibiotic resistance. We observed 613 bacteremic events among 349 of 834 patients who underwent BMT treated at the University of Minnesota from 2005 to 2010 (cumulative incidence 42%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 38-45). Donor type (allogeneic vs autologous) had the greatest impact on the incidence of bacteremia within 100 days posttransplantation. Among allogeneic transplantations, myeloablative (MA), compared to reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) was associated with a significantly greater risk of bacteremia, as was the development of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). Additionally, patients who underwent BMT, compared to the contemporaneous hospital population, developed infections with more frequent resistance to antibiotics used in the treatment against commonly isolated bacterial organisms. These findings have important clinical implications regarding the use and selection of both prophylactic and empiric antibiotic regimens.
- Antibiotic resistance
- Bacterial infections
- Blood and marrow transplantation