Objectives: Neonates undergoing cardiac surgery are at high risk for adverse outcomes. B-type natriuretic peptide is used as a biomarker in patients with cardiac disease, but the predictive value of B-type natriuretic peptide after cardiac surgery in neonates has not been evaluated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the predictive value of perioperative B-type natriuretic peptide levels for postoperative outcomes in neonates undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods: Plasma B-type natriuretic peptide determinations were made before and 2, 12, and 24 hours after surgery in 36 consecutive neonates. B-type natriuretic peptide levels and changes in perioperative B-type natriuretic peptide were evaluated as predictors of postoperative outcome. Results: B-type natriuretic peptide levels at 24 hours were lower than preoperative levels (24-h/pre B-type natriuretic peptide ratio < 1) in 29 patients (81%) and higher (24-h/pre B-type natriuretic peptide ratio ≥ 1) in 7 patients (19%). A 24-hour/pre B-type natriuretic peptide level of 1 or greater was associated with an increased incidence of low cardiac output syndrome (100% vs 34%, P = .002) and fewer ventilator-free days (17 ± 13 days vs 26 ± 3 days, P = .002), and predicted the 6-month composite end point of death, an unplanned cardiac operation, or cardiac transplant (57% vs 3%, P = .003). A 24-hour/pre B-type natriuretic peptide level of 1 or greater had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 90% for predicting a poor postoperative outcome (P = .003). Conclusion: In neonates undergoing cardiac surgery, an increase in B-type natriuretic peptide 24 hours after surgery predicts poor postoperative outcome.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was supported in part by grants K08 HL086513 (P.O.), K23 HL079922 (R.L.K.), and HL61284 and MO1RR01271 (J.R.F.) from the National Institutes of Health, and a grant from Biosite Diagnostic.