Twenty-six cases of B cell lymphoproliferative disorder (BLPD) were identified among 2395 patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT) for which an overall incidence of BLPD was 1.2%. The true incidence was probably higher, since 9/26 of the diagnoses were made at autopsy. No BLPD was observed following autologous HSCT, so risk factor analyses were confined to the 1542 allogeneic HSCT. Factors assessed were HLA-mismatching (≥ 1 antigen), T cell depletion (TCD), presence of acute GvHD (grades II-IV), donor type (related vs unrelated), age of recipient and donor, and underlying disease. Factors found to be statistically significant included patients transplanted for immune deficiency and CML, donor age ≥ 18 years, TCD, and HLA-mismatching, with recipients of combined TCD and HLA-mismatched grafts having the highest incidence. Factors found to be statistically significant in a multiple regression analysis were TCD, donor age and immune deficiency, although 7/8 of the patients with immunodeficiencies and BLPD received a TCD graft from a haploidentical parent. The overall mortality was 92% (24/26). One patient had a spontaneous remission, but subsequently died > 1 year later of chronic GVHD. Thirteen patients received therapy for BLPD. Three patients received lymphocyte infusions without response. The only patients with responses and long-term survival received alpha interferon ((αIFN). Of seven patients treated with αIFN there were four responses (one partial and three complete). These data demonstrate that αIFN can be an effective agent against BLPD following HSCT, if a timely diagnosis is made.
- Lymphoproliferative disease
- Risk factors