Nicotine replacement therapies (NRTs) represent an effective means of promoting smoking cessation, but they remain underutilized. Negative attitudes and false beliefs about nicotine and nicotine replacement may cause NRT underutilization. In a randomized, controlled, single-blind study of nicotine gum, 97 smokers were assessed on their attitudes and knowledge about nicotine, nicotine replacement, and smoking cessation therapy. Information from these self-report measures was used in an intervention that provided tailored, brief feedback to promote positive attitudes and accurate knowledge about NRT. Considerable variability in pretreatment attitudes and knowledge was observed across individuals. Moreover, attitudes and knowledge showed a consistent pattern of intercorrelation and were systematically related to smoking characteristics (e.g., prior use of NRT, nicotine dependence, treatment completion). The brief feedback intervention led to a significant global elevation in attitudes about nicotine, NRT, and assisted cessation but not knowledge about nicotine. Changes in attitudes and knowledge were not significantly related to gum use or smoking cessation. Recommendations for the appropriate application of brief feedback are offered.