The DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) is involved in several fundamental nuclear processes, including DNA double-strand break repair, V(D)J recombination, and transcription by RNA polymerases I and II. In this study, we show that infection of mammalian cells with herpes simplex virus type 1 attenuates DNA-PK activity by specifically depleting the p350/DNA- PKcs catalytic subunit. The half-life of the p350/DNA-PKcs protein decreases from greater than 24 h to less than 4 h following infection. The depletion of DNA-PK activity and p350/DNA-PKcs abundance is dependent on expression of the viral immediate-early protein ICP0. As ICP0 acts as a promoter-independent transactivator of gene expression, these data suggest that ICP0 may function by directly or indirectly targeting the p350/DNA-PKcs subunit of DNA-PK, thereby altering the inhibitory effects of DNA-PK on RNA polymerase II transcription.