This study examined the issue as to whether or not children carefully diagnosed as having either attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADDH) or without hyperactivity (ADDnoH) could be distinguished on selected cognitive, academic, rapid naming, and behavioral measures. Employing a previously validated multimodal, multi-informant diagnostic process that results in reliable clinical diagnoses, 10 ADDH and 10 ADDnoH children were examined. While no significant differences in cognitive ability were noted between groups, significant underachievement was found in the children diagnosed as ADDnoH, particularly in mathematics achievement. The ADDnoH children were also significantly slower on rapid naming tasks than the ADDH children. Further, 60% of the ADDnoH children had a codiagnosis of a developmental reading or arithmetic disorder while none of the ADDH children received such a codiagnosis. Conversely, 40% of the ADDH children had a codiagnosis of conduct disorder and were rated by their parent as significantly more motorically active, impulsive, and deviant in the demonstration of age-appropriate social skills. These findings are discussed as they relate to the notion that children with attention deficit disorder may suffer from a right hemispheric syndrome.