Atomic force microscope-based lithography of titanium

A. E. Gordon, D. D. Litfin, M. S. Hagedorn, J. Chen, R. T. Fayfield, T. K. Higman

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


Anodization of Ti by high electric fields at the tip of a scanned probe can be used to produce nanoscale features consisting of oxides of Ti. In this manner, Ti can be used as a sacrificial resist for nanoscale lithography by exploiting the etching selectivity differences between Ti and anodized Ti. The anodization was accomplished with an atomic force microscope using Ti-coated silicon nitride cantilevers. The anodizing bias voltage is applied to the tip and is independent of the feedback, unlike the scanning tunneling microscope. With this setup we were able to fabricate sub-40 nm lines by direct anodization of Ti. It is also shown that once tip and sample are brought into hard contact, subsequent bending of the cantilever has little effect on the linewidth or thickness of the anodized material.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)125-130
Number of pages6
JournalMaterials Research Society Symposium - Proceedings
StatePublished - 1995
EventProceedings of the 1995 MRS Spring Meeting - San Francisco, CA, USA
Duration: Apr 17 1995Apr 21 1995

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Project No. 61420106011, 61601277, 61601279) , the Shanghai Science and Technology Development Funds (Project No. 17010500400,15530500600,16 511104100, 16YF1403900) , and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation funded project (2016M601564).


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